The GPS space segment consists of a constellation of satellites transmitting radio signals to users. The United States is committed to maintaining the availability of at least 24 operational GPS satellites, 95% of the time. To ensure this commitment, the Air Force has been flying 31 operational GPS satellites for the past few years.
GPS satellites fly in medium Earth orbit (MEO) at an altitude of approximately 20,200 km (12,550 miles). Each satellite circles the Earth twice a day.
Expandable 24-Slot satellite constellation, as defined in the SPS Performance Standard.
The satellites in the GPS constellation are arranged into six equally-spaced orbital planes surrounding the Earth. Each plane contains four "slots" occupied by baseline satellites. This 24-slot arrangement ensures users can view at least four satellites from virtually any point on the planet.
The Air Force normally flies more than 24 GPS satellites to maintain coverage whenever the baseline satellites are serviced or decommissioned. The extra satellites may increase GPS performance but are not considered part of the core constellation.
In June 2011, the Air Force successfully completed a GPS constellation expansion known as the "Expandable 24" configuration. Three of the 24 slots were expanded, and six satellites were repositioned, so that three of the extra satellites became part of the constellation baseline. As a result, GPS now effectively operates as a 27-slot constellation with improved coverage in most parts of the world. Learn more at AF.mil
Technical details about the orbits, coverage, and performance of the GPS satellite constellation are documented in the GPS Performance Standards. View
Current and Future Satellite Generations
The GPS constellation is a mix of old and new satellites. The following table summarizes features of the current and future generations of GPS satellites, including Block IIA (2nd generation, "Advanced"), Block IIR ("Replenishment"), Block IIR(M) ("Modernized"), Block IIF ("Follow-on"), and GPS III.
As of June 15, 2016, there were 31 operational satellites in the GPS constellation. This does not include the decommissioned GPS satellites ("residuals") kept in orbit in case there is a need to reactivate them. The operational satellite count is broken down by type in the table below. For more up-to-date constellation status information, visit the NAVCEN website. Go there
|Legacy Satellites||Modernized Satellites|
|Block IIA||Block IIR||Block IIR(M)||Block IIF||GPS III|
GPS Block IIF
Updated All 12 satellites in the GPS IIF series have now been completed and launched into orbit.
Updated On February 5, 2016, the Air Force successfully launched the final GPS IIF satellite. It became available to users on March 9. Video courtesy ULA.
- Final GPS IIF Satellite Joins Constellation (af.mil)
- Team Blackjack Supports Last GPS IIF Satellite Llaunch (af.mil)
- Air Force Successfully Launches GPS IIF-12 Satellite (af.mil)
- 45th Space Wing supports Air Force GPS IIF-12 launch aboard an Atlas V (af.mil)
- Air Force ready to launch final GPS IIF-series satellite (af.mil)
- Media Update: ULA Atlas V GPS IIF-12 Launch Delay (af.mil)
- ULA Launch mission booklet (PDF)
The 11th GPS IIF satellite launched on October 31, 2015, and became available to users on December 9.
On January 8, 2016, the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center released a solicitation seeking proposals for the GPS III Space Vehicles 11+ Phase 1 Production Readiness Feasibility Assessment contract. Learn more (af.mil)
On June 4, 2014, the Air Force issued a Sources Sought Notice seeking responses from alternate prime contractors capable of meeting the government's requirements for GPS III.
On March 31, 2014, the Air Force announced a contract modification for Lockheed Martin to produce the seventh and eighth GPS III satellites. The Air Force previously announced a separate contract modification to purchase long-lead items for those satellites.
On March 11, 2014, the Air Force released its FY 2015 budget, requesting procurement funds for one GPS III satellite instead of two as in prior years. Learn more and track congressional response on our FY 2015 Funding page. Go there
The Air Force exercised options for the fifth and sixth GPS III satellites in February and December 2013, and for the third and fourth satellites in January 2012.