LORAN-C Infrastructure & E-LORAN
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LORAN-C was a ground-based navigation system operated by the U.S. Coast Guard. In May 2009, President Obama declared the system obsolete and announced plans to terminate it.
That year, Congress debated whether to retain and upgrade the LORAN-C infrastructure to become E-LORAN, a national backup to GPS. In October 2009, Congress enacted a DHS appropriations measure allowing LORAN-C termination. The Coast Guard began shutting it down in February 2010 (learn more at USCG.gov).
In February 2014, the House transportation committee reopened the topic during a hearing on navigation aids (learn more) and the markup of the 2014 Coast Guard act.
New National Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Resilience and Security Act of 2016
Rep. Duncan Hunter introduced this legislation on June 20, 2016, as an element of H.R. 5531, the Miscellaneous Maritime Transportation Amendments Act of 2016. The bill proposes that:
Subject to the availability of appropriations, the Commandant of the Coast Guard, in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation, shall provide for the establishment, sustainment, and operation of a reliable land-based positioning, navigation, and timing system to provide a complement to and backup for the Global Positioning System (in this section referred to as 'GPS') to ensure the availability of uncorrupted and non-degraded positioning, navigation, and timing signals for military and civilian users in the event that GPS signals are corrupted, degraded, unreliable, or otherwise unavailable. View source
The House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee announced a markup of H.R. 5531 for June 23, but it was canceled.
Rep. John Garamendi introduced an earlier version of this bill (H.R. 1678) in 2015 but it saw no movement after being referred to committee.
Coast Guard Authorization Act of 2015
President Obama signed this act into law on February 8, 2016.View law (PDF)
Section 610 provides guidance and authority concerning "Disposition of Infrastructure Related to E-LORAN". It repeals and replaces the previous guidance enacted in Section 229 of the Howard Coble Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Act of 2014 (See below).
Section 610 also amends the statutory authorities of the Coast Guard Commandant codified at 14 U.S.C. § 93(a) (view text at house.gov) to include:
(25) enter into cooperative agreements, contracts, and other agreements with Federal entities and other public or private entities, including academic entities, to develop a positioning, navigation, and timing system to provide redundant capability in the event Global Positioning System signals are disrupted, which may consist of an enhanced LORAN system.
Howard Coble Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation Act of 2014
President Obama signed this act into law on December 18, 2014.View law (PDF)
Section 229 ("E-LORAN") provides that, "The Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating may not carry out activities related to the dismantling or disposal of infrastructure that supported the former LORAN system until the later of...."
The provision originated with the House transportation committee (View source, PDF).
Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act, 2010
President Obama signed this act into law on October 28, 2009.View law (PDF)
Section 559 allows termination of LORAN-C and decommissioning of the infrastructure after:
- The Coast Guard Commandant certifies the termination will not adversely impact maritime safety; and
- The Secretary of Homeland Security certifies the LORAN-C infrastructure is not needed as a backup to GPS or to meet any other federal navigation requirement.
Coast Guard Authorization Act of 2010
President Obama signed this act into law on October 15, 2010.View law (PDF)
Section 219 directs the Secretary of Homeland Security to conclude a study of whether a single, domestic system is needed as a backup navigation system to GPS.
Earlier versions of the legislation in the House (view source, congress.gov) and Senate (view source, congress.gov) included specific provisions on E-LORAN, but these were dropped after passage of the law allowing LORAN-C termination.
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