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U.S. Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Policy

December 15, 2004

Fact Sheet

The President authorized a new national policy on December 8, 2004 that establishes guidance and implementation actions for space-based positioning, navigation, and timing programs, augmentations, and activities for U.S. national and homeland security, civil, scientific, and commercial purposes. This policy supersedes Presidential Decision Directive/National Science and Technology Council-6, U.S. Global Positioning System Policy, dated March 28, 1996.

I. Scope and Definitions

This policy provides guidance for: (1) development, acquisition, operation, sustainment, and modernization of the Global Positioning System and U.S.-developed, owned and/or operated systems used to augment or otherwise improve the Global Positioning System and/or other space-based positioning, navigation, and timing signals; (2) development, deployment, sustainment, and modernization of capabilities to protect U.S. and allied access to and use of the Global Positioning System for national, homeland, and economic security, and to deny adversaries access to any space-based positioning, navigation, and timing services; and (3) foreign access to the Global Positioning System and United States Government augmentations, and international cooperation with foreign space-based positioning, navigation, and timing services, including augmentations.

For purposes of this document:

II. Background

Over the past decade, the Global Positioning System has grown into a global utility whose multi-use services are integral to U.S. national security, economic growth, transportation safety, and homeland security, and are an essential element of the worldwide economic infrastructure. In the year 2000, the United States recognized the increasing importance of the Global Positioning System to civil and commercial users by discontinuing the deliberate degradation of accuracy for non-military signals, known as Selective Availability. Since that time, commercial and civil applications of the Global Positioning System have continued to multiply and their importance has increased significantly. Services dependent on Global Positioning System information are now an engine for economic growth, enhancing economic development, and improving safety of life, and the system is a key component of multiple sectors of U.S. critical infrastructure.

While the growth in civil and commercial applications continues, the positioning, navigation, and timing information provided by the Global Positioning System remains critical to U.S. national security, and its applications are integrated into virtually every facet of U.S. military operations. United States and allied military forces will continue to rely on the Global Positioning System military services for positioning, navigation, and timing services.

The continuing growth of services based on the Global Positioning System presents opportunities, risks, and threats to U.S. national, homeland, and economic security. The widespread and growing dependence on the Global Positioning System of military, civil, and commercial systems and infrastructures has made many of these systems inherently vulnerable to an unexpected interruption in positioning, navigation, and/or timing services. In addition, whether designed for military capabilities or not, all positioning, navigation, and timing signals from space and their augmentations provide inherent capabilities that can be used by adversaries, including enemy military forces and terrorist groups. Finally, emerging foreign space-based positioning, navigation, and timing services could enhance or undermine the future utility of the Global Positioning System.

The United States must continue to improve and maintain the Global Positioning System, augmentations, and backup capabilities to meet growing national, homeland, and economic security requirements, for civil requirements, and to meet commercial and scientific demands. In parallel, we must continue to improve capabilities to deny adversary access to all space-based positioning, navigation, and timing services, particularly including services that are openly available and can be readily used by adversaries and/or terrorists to threaten the security of the United States. In addition, the diverse requirements for and multiple applications of space-based positioning, navigation, and timing services require stable yet adaptable policies and management mechanisms. The existing management mechanisms for the Global Positioning System and its augmentations must be modified to accommodate a multi-use approach to program planning, resource allocation, system development, and operations. Therefore, the United States Government must improve the policy and management framework governing the Global Positioning System and its augmentations to support their continued ability to meet increasing and varied domestic and global requirements.

III. Goals and Objectives

The fundamental goal of this policy is to ensure that the United States maintains space-based positioning, navigation, and timing services, augmentation, back-up, and service denial capabilities that: (1) provide uninterrupted availability of positioning, navigation, and timing services; (2) meet growing national, homeland, economic security, and civil requirements, and scientific and commercial demands; (3) remain the pre-eminent military space-based positioning, navigation, and timing service; (4) continue to provide civil services that exceed or are competitive with foreign civil space-based positioning, navigation, and timing services and augmentation systems; (5) remain essential components of internationally accepted positioning, navigation, and timing services; and (6) promote U.S. technological leadership in applications involving space-based positioning, navigation, and timing services. To achieve this goal, the United States Government shall:

IV. Management of Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Services

This policy establishes a permanent National Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Executive Committee. The Executive Committee will be co-chaired by the Deputy Secretaries of the Department of Defense and the Department of Transportation or by their designated representatives. Its members will include representatives at the equivalent level from the Departments of State, Commerce, and Homeland Security, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and from other Departments and Agencies as required. Components of the Executive Office of the President, including the Office of Management and Budget, the National Security Council staff, the Homeland Security Council staff, the Office of Science and Technology Policy, and the National Economic Council staff, shall participate as observers to the Executive Committee. The Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission shall be invited to participate on the Executive Committee as a Liaison. The Executive Committee shall meet at least twice each year. The Secretaries of Defense and Transportation shall develop the procedures by which the Committee shall operate.

The Executive Committee shall make recommendations to its member Departments and Agencies, and to the President through the representatives of the Executive Office of the President. In addition, the Executive Committee will advise and coordinate with and among the Departments and Agencies responsible for the strategic decisions regarding policies, architectures, requirements, and resource allocation for maintaining and improving U.S. space-based positioning, navigation, and timing infrastructures, including the Global Positioning System, its augmentations, security for these services, and relationships with foreign positioning, navigation, and timing services. Specifically, the Executive Committee shall:

The Executive Committee shall establish the National Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Coordination Office. This office shall provide the staff functions for the Executive Committee. It shall be led by a full-time Director chosen by, and reporting to the Executive Committee, and shall include a cadre of full-time staff provided by Departments and Agencies represented on the Executive Committee. The Executive Committee shall determine the resources for the National Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Coordination Office, including funding, location, staffing, and composition, consistent with the direction of this policy.

The National Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Coordination Office shall serve as the Secretariat for the Executive Committee and shall perform those functions delegated by the Executive Committee. Departments and Agencies shall provide appropriate information to the National Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Coordination Office to ensure interagency transparency about positioning, navigation, and timing programs, policies, budgets, and activities that might affect mutual interests or interagency dependencies. The Interagency Global Positioning System Executive Board is hereby disestablished, and the Executive Committee or the National Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Coordination Office, as appropriate, shall assume its functions as defined in the Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Executive Committee Charter, consistent with the direction provided in this policy.

The Executive Committee shall advise and coordinate the interdepartmental resource allocation for the Global Positioning System and it [sic] augmentations on an annual basis. The Secretary of Defense shall have primary responsibility for providing resources for development, acquisition, operation, sustainment, and modernization of the Global Positioning System. The Secretary of Transportation shall provide resources to the Secretary of Defense for assessment, development, acquisition, implementation, operation, and sustainment of additional designated Global Positioning System civil capabilities beyond the second and third civil signals already contained in the current Global Positioning System program. Global Positioning System civil signal performance monitoring, augmentations, and other unique positioning, navigation, and timing capabilities will be funded by the agency or agencies requiring those services or capabilities, including out-year procurement and operations costs. Any new technical features proposed and funded by the civil agencies shall not degrade or displace existing or planned national security functions of the system. If the Executive Committee recommends that the availability of Global Positioning System capabilities should be accelerated, the Executive Committee will make recommendations regarding the resources required to accelerate those capabilities. Resource issues will be resolved during the regular budget process.

The details of the cost sharing between: (1) the Department of Defense and the Department of Transportation, for the Global Positioning System; and (2) Departments and Agencies sponsoring augmentations, and/or unique or accelerated capabilities, shall be outlined in a Five-Year National Space-Based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Plan, consistent with the guidance provided in this policy.

V. Foreign Access to U.S. Space-based Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Capabilities

Any exports of U.S. positioning, navigation, and timing capabilities covered by the United States Munitions List or the Commerce Control List will continue to be licensed pursuant to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations or the Export Administration Regulations, as appropriate, and in accordance with all existing laws and regulations.

As a general guideline, export of civil or other non-United States Munitions List space-based positioning, navigation and timing capabilities that are currently available or are planned to be available in the global marketplace will continue to be considered favorably. Exports of sensitive or advanced positioning, navigation, and timing information, systems, technologies, and components will be considered on a case-by-case basis in accordance with existing laws and regulations, as well as relevant national security and foreign policy goals and considerations. In support of such reviews, the Secretary of State, in consultation with the Secretaries of Defense, Commerce, and Energy, the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the Director of Central Intelligence, shall modify and maintain the Sensitive Technology List directed in U.S. Commercial Remote Sensing Space Policy, dated April 25, 2003, including those technology items or areas deemed sensitive for positioning, navigation and timing applications. The Secretaries of State and Commerce shall use the list in the evaluation of requests for exports.

VI. Agency Roles and Responsibilities

Departments and Agencies shall allocate the resources required to fulfill the objectives of this policy. Nothing in this policy shall diminish the operational and budgetary authorities of the Departments and Agencies.

The Secretary of Defense shall:

The Secretary of Transportation shall:

The Secretary of Commerce shall:

The Secretary of State shall:

The Secretary of Homeland Security shall:

The Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, in cooperation with the Secretary of Commerce, shall develop and provide to the Secretary of Transportation requirements for the use of the Global Positioning System and its augmentations to support civil space systems.

The Director of Central Intelligence shall identify, monitor, and assess the development of foreign threats to the use of the Global Positioning System positioning, navigation, and timing architectures and related services; provide information to assist the Secretary of Defense in development of countermeasures;

Departments and Agencies detecting interference, or receiving reports of domestic or international interference adversely affecting the performance of U.S. space-based positioning, navigation, and timing services shall provide timely reports to the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Secretary of Defense, and the Director of Central Intelligence. Upon notification by the Secretary of Homeland Security:

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